简介概要

一种基于爆破振动信号小波分析的爆破危害评判新方法

来源期刊:中南大学学报(自然科学版)2010年第4期

论文作者:刘敦文 粟闯 龚运高

文章页码:1574 - 1577

关键词:爆破振动;小波分析;能量分析;爆破危害;综合评判方法

Key words:blasting vibration; wavelet analysis; energy analysis; blasting damage; integrative evaluation method

摘    要:基于Matlab小波分析软件,利用小波包良好的时频局部化性质对现场监测的爆破振动信号进行能量分析,得到爆破振动信号不同频带上的能量分布。根据爆破振动信号在传播过程中能量的变化规律及爆破振动信号的频带能量分布与爆破振动影响的密切关系,据爆破振动信号主振频率所在频域能量和受控结构自振频率所在频域能量,提出一种新的基于爆破振动信号小波分析的爆破危害评判方法。将计算实测点的爆破危害评定参数α与在该点观测到的建筑物的α进行对比。研究结果表明:当α>0.235时,建筑物受损;随着α增大,建筑物受损情况 加剧。

Abstract: Based on wavelet analysis software of Matlab, the energy of the monitoring blasting vibration signals was studied by means of the wavelet packet analysis, which had high resolvability and localization, and the energy distribution of blasting frequency bands was obtained. According to the energy variety regulation of blasting vibration signals in the dissemination process and the close relation between energy distribution for different frequency bands and the blasting vibration effect, a new method for blasting hazards evaluation based on the wavelet analysis of blasting vibration signals was proposed from the aspect of the energy on dominant frequency bands and natural frequency bands of controlled structure. The assess parameter of blasting vibration hazards α was compared with the actual impaired situation of building. The results show that the building is damaged when α>0.235. With the increase of α, the impaired situation of building is intensified.



详情信息展示

一种基于爆破振动信号小波分析的爆破危害评判新方法

刘敦文,粟闯,龚运高

(中南大学 资源与安全工程学院,湖南 长沙,410083)

摘  要:基于Matlab小波分析软件,利用小波包良好的时频局部化性质对现场监测的爆破振动信号进行能量分析,得到爆破振动信号不同频带上的能量分布。根据爆破振动信号在传播过程中能量的变化规律及爆破振动信号的频带能量分布与爆破振动影响的密切关系,据爆破振动信号主振频率所在频域能量和受控结构自振频率所在频域能量,提出一种新的基于爆破振动信号小波分析的爆破危害评判方法。将计算实测点的爆破危害评定参数α与在该点观测到的建筑物的α进行对比。研究结果表明:当α>0.235时,建筑物受损;随着α增大,建筑物受损情况      加剧。

关键词:爆破振动;小波分析;能量分析;爆破危害;综合评判方法

中图分类号:TD235.4          文献标志码:A         文章编号:1672-7207(2010)04-1574-04

New method for blasting hazards evaluation based on wavelet analysis of blasting vibration signals

LIU Dun-wen, SU Chuang, GONG Yun-gao

(School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China)

Abstract: Based on wavelet analysis software of Matlab, the energy of the monitoring blasting vibration signals was studied by means of the wavelet packet analysis, which had high resolvability and localization, and the energy distribution of blasting frequency bands was obtained. According to the energy variety regulation of blasting vibration signals in the dissemination process and the close relation between energy distribution for different frequency bands and the blasting vibration effect, a new method for blasting hazards evaluation based on the wavelet analysis of blasting vibration signals was proposed from the aspect of the energy on dominant frequency bands and natural frequency bands of controlled structure. The assess parameter of blasting vibration hazards α was compared with the actual impaired situation of building. The results show that the building is damaged when α>0.235. With the increase of α, the impaired situation of building is intensified.

Key words: blasting vibration; wavelet analysis; energy analysis; blasting damage; integrative evaluation method

                                        

爆破地震效应的控制与评价、爆破地震安全判据已成为爆破工程界重要的研究课题[1-2]。以单一质点峰值振动速度作为爆破振动安全评定标准或采用保护对象所在质点峰值振动速度和主振频率的爆破振动判据局限性大[3]。目前,对爆破振动的研究主要集中在提高爆破强度预测精度上,对于爆破振动输入结构的能量和爆破振动能量在地震效应中作用的研究则很少,未能很好地利用多参数来进行综合评判[4]。徐国元等[3]从各频带能量分布的角度提出了基于小波变换的爆破地震安全能量分析法。但是,此方法存在各频带特征频率接近度难以确定的不足。为此,本文作者在考虑爆破振动幅值、频率、持续时间、能量多参数基础上,提出以爆破危害评定参数α来评判爆破振动对受控结构物影响的方法。

1  小波分析与能量分析基础理论

1.1  小波分析的基本理论

小波分析是通过在不同分解水平下窗口大小随分解水平而改变的小波函数对信号进行时域局部化分析。设(其中:为能量有限的信号空间,其傅里叶变换为),当满足允许条件(完全重构或恒等分辨)时,

            (1)

为一个基本小波函数或母小波函数。将平移和伸缩可以得到1组小波。对于连续的情况,小   波为:

     (2)

式中:a为尺度因子;b为平移因子。

对于离散情况,小波为:

          (3)

由式(2)和(3)可以看出:小波函数非任意,也非唯一,因此,小波基的选择是小波分析在实际应用中的一个重要问题[5]

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